Skip to main content

12 Best Radiology Information Systems Software Shortlist

After rigorous assessment, I've cherry-picked the 12 best radiology information systems tailored to your unique challenges.

  1. eRAD RIS - Best for integrating imaging with patient data
  2. Wellbeing Software - Best for leveraging AI in radiology
  3. PostDICOM - Best for cloud-based imaging and archiving
  4. Medavis - Best for workflow optimization in radiology
  5. Three Palm Software - Best for mammography-specific workflows
  6. Siemens Healthineers - Best for service line management solutions
  7. ProtonPACS - Best for radiology groups seeking PACS solutions
  8. Intelerad - Best for high-volume, multi-site networks
  9. Novarad - Best for augmented reality in radiology
  10. AbbaDox - Best for optimizing radiologist workflow and interoperability
  11. Advance Data Systems Corporation - Best for a feature-rich RIS software
  12. Philips RIS - Best for combining informatics and clinical practices

As a healthcare professional myself, I understand the intricate challenges you face when managing diagnostic images and patient data. A Radiology Information System (RIS) is a tool that streamlines the management of patient records, appointment scheduling, and billing within radiology departments. It's a game-changer as it can significantly improve workflow efficiency, data organization, and overall patient care.

From my personal experience, the main problem it addresses is the often overwhelming task of data management - handling volumes of sensitive patient data and complex radiological information can become seamless with the right RIS solution. I've explored a variety of options to help you find the right fit for your specific needs.

What Is Radiology Information Systems?

A Radiology Information System (RIS) is a networked software system designed to manage medical imagery and patient data. The core users of this system are healthcare professionals, specifically radiologists, radiology technicians, and radiology department administrative staff.

The system is instrumental in organizing, storing, and retrieving radiology imaging data, managing patient scheduling, tracking patient history, generating detailed reports, and handling billing information. It's a crucial tool in the healthcare industry to streamline radiological practices, improve patient care, and enhance operational efficiency within a radiology department.

12 Best Radiology Information Systems Overviews

1. eRAD RIS - Best for integrating imaging with patient data

eRAD sample view of report dashboard making it easier for users to keep track of their works
eRAD's report dashboard makes it easier for users to keep track of their work.

eRAD RIS is a powerful patient engagement radiology information system designed to streamline your workflow worklist. It excels at integrating imaging with patient data, enhancing accuracy, and speeding up diagnostic procedures.

Why I Picked eRAD RIS:

I chose eRAD RIS for its excellent capability to tie together imaging and patient data for an excellent patient experience. The system sets itself apart with its robust features and intuitive user interface. For radiology practices seeking optimal integration of images with patient information, this tool clearly stands out.

What do you get for free?

eRAD RIS does not offer a free version of its software. However, they do provide a demo version on request. This enables potential users to get a feel for the system and understand its features before purchasing.

Standout features & integrations:

eRAD RIS comes with a wealth of useful features, including built-in dictation, transcription, document scanning, and a patient portal. The ability to directly integrate these features into a unified platform makes for a truly comprehensive tool. The system also offers HL7 integrations, allowing seamless communication with other healthcare IT systems in your practice.


Pricing for eRAD RIS is provided upon request.


  • Superior integration of imaging with patient data
  • Comprehensive feature set including built-in dictation and transcription
  • Smooth HL7 integration with other IT systems


  • No free tier available
  • Pricing information is not readily available
  • The learning curve for new users might be steep due to the range of features

2. Wellbeing Software - Best for leveraging AI in radiology

Successful integration of AI in Radiology; made possible by AI Connect from Wellbeing Software.
Successful integration of AI in radiology, made possible by AI Connect from Wellbeing software.

Wellbeing Software is a comprehensive radiology information system that takes advantage of AI to deliver enhanced insights. Its sophisticated algorithms and AI integration make it an indispensable tool for radiologists who want to harness the power of artificial intelligence when doing radiology practices.

Why I Picked Wellbeing Software:

In my quest for a tool that maximizes the use of AI in radiology, Wellbeing Software emerged as an exceptional choice. I picked this software for its unique ability to leverage AI in radiological diagnosis, messaging, and providing augmented insights to healthcare providers. For those who want to stay at the cutting edge of technology in radiology, Wellbeing Software delivers.

What do you get for free?

Wellbeing Software does not offer a free tier or trial of their software. However, interested clients can request a demonstration of the system to understand better its capabilities and how it can fit into their workflow.

Standout features & integrations:

Wellbeing Software offers an array of crucial features, including AI-enhanced reporting, dashboards, integrated imaging, and patient data management. The system stands out with its ability to use AI for more accurate interpretations and predictive analyses. As for integrations, Wellbeing Software smoothly interfaces with a range of systems such as EHRs/EMRs, PACS, and other healthcare software.


Pricing for Wellbein Software is provided upon request.


  • Effective use of AI for enhanced diagnostic accuracy
  • Seamless integration with other healthcare systems
  • Offers an extensive range of functionalities


  • No free tier or trial version
  • Pricing information is not readily available
  • Might require training due to AI-enhanced features

3. PostDICOM - Best for cloud-based imaging and archiving

PostDICOM application viewer
PostDICOM's application viewer

PostDICOM is a standout radiology information system offering powerful cloud-based imaging and archiving. It's designed to not only streamline your radiological workflow but also securely store demographics and access medical images from anywhere, at any time.

Why I Picked PostDICOM:

My selection of PostDICOM is rooted in its robust capability for cloud-based imaging and archiving. In comparison to other systems, PostDICOM shines with its ability to provide convenient, secure access to medical images, irrespective of location or device. If you need reliable cloud-based imaging and archiving, PostDICOM is your best bet.

What do you get for free?

PostDICOM offers a free version of their software, which includes 50GB of secure cloud storage on-premises. This enables users to start leveraging the power of cloud-based imaging and archiving without any upfront investment.

Standout features & integrations:

PostDICOM offers remarkable features like cloud-based PACS, 3D medical imaging, and multiplanar reconstruction. It excels at providing secure, reliable cloud storage for your medical imaging needs. In terms of integrations, PostDICOM interfaces smoothly with other IT systems via standard DICOM and HL7 protocols.


Prices start from $9.99/user/month (billed annually) and include secure cloud storage.


  • Robust cloud-based imaging and archiving
  • Offers a free version with 50GB cloud storage
  • Reliable integrations with standard DICOM and HL7 protocols


  • Costs can increase with more storage and features
  • Requires internet connection for accessing cloud-based features
  • Learning curve for some advanced features

4. Medavis - Best for workflow optimization in radiology

A view of Medavis dashboard for users navigation
A view of Medavis' user navigation dashboard.

When it comes to optimizing workflow in radiology departments, Medavis is the system to beat. Offering a multitude of advanced tools not only enhances efficiency but also boosts patient satisfaction and outcome.

Why I Picked Medavis:

I chose Medavis specifically for its remarkable workflow optimization capabilities. The decision was based on evaluating and comparing various platforms for medical practices. Medavis stood out with its detailed attention to streamlining the process, reducing administrative burden, and enhancing overall efficiency. It's precisely why I believe Medavis is the best for workflow optimization in radiology.

What do you get for free?

Medavis doesn’t offer a free tier. However, they do offer a demo for users interested in exploring their software before purchase, which allows you to get a taste of their workflow optimization capabilities.

Standout features & integrations:

Medavis RIS shines with features like appointment scheduling, report dictation, billing, and reporting tools, all of which contribute to superior workflow optimization. It also integrates seamlessly with other systems, such as PACS and EHRs, for a comprehensive and connected approach to patient care.


Pricing for Medavis RIS begins from $15/user/month (billed annually). This starting price covers access to its powerful suite of radiology information system features.


  • Excellent for workflow optimization
  • Wide range of features contributing to increased efficiency
  • Seamless integration with PACS and EHRs


  • Lack of a free version
  • Requires annual commitment for best pricing
  • Potential learning curve for some advanced features

5. Three Palm Software - Best for mammography-specific workflows

Three Palm software medical imaging
Three Palm software's medical imaging in action.

Three Palm Software specializes in radiology software, with a key focus on mammography. Their product, WorkstationOne, is designed to streamline mammography workflows and offer enhanced enterprise imaging tools. Its specialization makes it the best choice for mammography-specific workflows.

Why I Picked Three Palm Software:

When I started comparing different radiology software, Three Palm Software immediately caught my attention due to its specialization in mammography. This niche focus sets it apart from more general-purpose platforms. Considering the critical nature of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer, a system dedicated to optimizing these workflows stood out as a clear choice. That's why I deem it the best for mammography-specific workflows.

What do you get for free?

Three Palm Software doesn't offer a free version of its software. However, they do provide a trial period for interested users to explore the platform's features and determine its suitability for their practice.

Standout features & integrations:

Three Palm Software's WorkstationOne features include specialized mammography viewers, customizable hanging protocols, and integrated reporting tools. It also integrates well with other radiology software, such as PACS and RIS systems, facilitating a smooth workflow from image capture to diagnosis and reporting.


Pricing for Three Palm Software is provided upon request. The specific cost depends on the requirements of your practice.


  • Specializes in mammography workflows
  • Customizable hanging protocols
  • Integration with other radiology software


  • Lack of transparent pricing
  • No free version available
  • Might be too specialized for practices requiring a broader range of imaging solutions

6. Siemens Healthineers - Best for service line management solutions

Siemens Healthineers portal for general reading
Siemens Healthineers' portal for general reading.

Siemens Healthineers is a renowned player in the health technology industry, providing a range of tools and services that streamline service line management in medical imaging. The broad spectrum of tools, each tailored to different service lines, makes Siemens Healthineers the best choice for managing complex service line structures.

Why I Picked Siemens Healthineers:

As I assessed different tools, Siemens Healthineers stood out for its comprehensive suite of solutions tailored to manage diverse service lines. In contrast to many other radiology tools, it offers specialized features for different types of radiological services. I chose Siemens Healthineers because of its unparalleled ability to cater to the intricacies of service line management.

What do you get for free?

Siemens Healthineers does not offer any free versions of its software solutions. Potential customers are encouraged to reach out to the company directly for product demos and additional information.

Standout features & integrations:

Key features of Siemens Healthineers' solutions include advanced imaging capabilities, real-time data analytics, practice management, and medical billing tools . In terms of integrations, Siemens Healthineers' systems can easily integrate with hospital information systems (HIS) and electronic health records (EHR) or electronic medical records (EMRs), facilitating information exchange and collaboration across departments.


Pricing information for Siemens Healthineers software solutions is not publicly available and is provided upon request.


  • Offers solutions tailored to diverse service lines
  • Advanced imaging and data analytics capabilities
  • Smooth integration with HIS and EHR systems


  • No free version or trial period
  • Pricing information is not transparent
  • Might be overly complex for smaller healthcare facilities

7. ProtonPACS - Best for radiology groups seeking PACS solutions

ProtonPACS result image viewer dashboard
ProtonPACS' image viewing dashboard.

ProtonPACS is a premium Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) that offers a comprehensive solution for storing, retrieving, managing, distributing, and presenting images in radiology groups. With its robust and flexible PACS solution, it optimally caters to radiology groups seeking to streamline their imaging workflows.

Why I Picked ProtonPACS:

In comparing a number of PACS systems, I found that ProtonPACS distinguishes itself with its comprehensive and high-performance features specifically tailored for radiology groups. It excels in handling high imaging volumes and providing seamless access to radiological images across different locations, making it a day-to-day tool and determined as the best fit for radiology groups.

What do you get for free?

As of now, ProtonPACS does not offer a free version or trial of their software. Potential users can request a demo to get a first-hand understanding of the tool's capabilities and features.

Standout features & integrations:

ProtonPACS stands out with its high-speed image transmission, intuitive interface, and multi-modality support. Additionally, it can be integrated with various Radiology Information Systems (RIS), Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems, and other health information systems, ensuring easy exchange of medical imaging data.


The pricing for ProtonPACS is not publicly available and is given upon request.


  • Robust and flexible PACS solution
  • High-speed image transmission
  • Excellent integration capabilities


  • No free version or trial
  • Pricing information is not readily available
  • The interface may require a learning curve for those unfamiliar with PACS systems

8. Intelerad - Best for high-volume, multi-site networks

Intelerad image viewer from all devices
Intelerad's image viewer can be accessed from various devices.

Intelerad provides advanced medical imaging software and enterprise workflow solutions, specializing in the field of radiology. Given its ability to support high imaging volumes and multi-site networks with ease, it stands out as a preferable choice for large-scale healthcare settings with multiple locations.

Why I Picked Intelerad:

I picked Intelerad for its commitment to optimizing radiological workflows, particularly in high-volume, multi-site networks. The system manages to streamline complex processes efficiently and integrates well with multiple sites, differentiating it from other tools. In my opinion, this makes Intelerad the ideal tool for such use-case scenarios.

What do you get for free?

As of my last review, Intelerad doesn't offer a free plan or trial. However, interested parties can request a demo to understand the software's capabilities better.

Standout features & integrations:

Intelerad is known for its advanced PACS, RIS, and data analytics capabilities. It offers a unified, intuitive interface that delivers high-resolution diagnostic images quickly. It also integrates seamlessly with a wide range of EHR systems and other healthcare IT solutions.


Intelerad's pricing information isn't publicly listed and is provided upon request.


  • Advanced medical imaging and workflow solutions
  • Can manage high imaging volumes
  • Seamless integration with multiple sites and various modules for healthcare IT solutions


  • No free plan or trial
  • Pricing information is not readily available
  • Could be too complex for small healthcare settings

9. Novarad - Best for augmented reality in radiology

Novarad universal viewer dashboard
Novarad's universal viewer dashboard.

Novarad is a provider of advanced outpatient radiology imaging solutions, including PACS, RIS, and cardiology systems. Its unique selling point lies in its pioneering use of augmented reality in radiology, making it especially suited for those seeking state-of-the-art image visualization techniques.

Why I Picked Novarad:

I chose Novarad because of its innovative approach to radiology. In particular, its application of augmented reality for enhanced visualization sets it apart from its competitors. The way I see it, Novarad is ideally suited for medical professionals seeking to leverage advanced technology in their imaging procedures, making it the best for augmented reality use in radiology.

What do you get for free?

Novarad does not offer a free plan, trial, or demo version of its software. Interested parties are encouraged to contact the company directly for information about potential product demos or trials.

Standout features & integrations:

Novarad offers features like advanced PACS and RIS capabilities, cardiology systems, and its flagship augmented reality system - the OpenSight Augmented Reality System. Moreover, it integrates with various EHR systems and other health IT software to facilitate seamless data flow.


Novarad's pricing is not readily available online and is provided upon request.


  • Pioneering augmented reality system for enhanced image visualization
  • Robust integrations with EHR systems and other health IT software
  • Comprehensive imaging solutions including PACS, RIS, and cardiology systems


  • No free trial or plan available
  • Pricing is not publicly listed and requires direct inquiry
  • The use of advanced technology like augmented reality might require additional training

10. AbbaDox - Best for optimizing radiologist workflow

Abbadox appointment setting features two-way patient SMS
Abbadox's appointment setting features a two-way patient SMS

AbbaDox is a cloud-based healthcare IT platform for imaging centers and teleradiology organizations that offers an array of services to improve radiology workflow management systems. Its solutions focus on streamlining operations, aiding in better patient management, and enhancing reporting efficiency, making it best suited for those looking to optimize radiologist workflow and radiology centers.

Why I Picked AbbaDox:

I selected AbbaDox due to its focus on radiology workflow optimization. It stood out because of its diverse suite of cloud-based tools specifically designed for the radiology environment. I firmly believe that AbbaDox's targeted approach toward improving radiology operations makes it the best choice for optimizing radiologist workflow.

What do you get for free?

AbbaDox does not appear to offer a free version or trial of its services. For specific information regarding trials or demos, contacting the company directly would be the best course of action.

Standout features & integrations:

AbbaDox provides features like advanced radiology information systems (RIS), picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), and voice recognition to help streamline reporting. As for integrations, it supports various EHR systems and billing software, among other healthcare IT solutions.


AbbaDox does not publicly disclose its pricing. For precise figures, one must directly reach out to the company or by referral.


  • Comprehensive suite of radiology-specific, cloud-based solutions
  • Integrates with various EHR systems and billing software
  • Features like advanced RIS, PACS, and voice recognition help optimize workflows


  • No free plan or trial readily available
  • Pricing information is not publicly listed, requiring direct contact
  • Cloud-based platform might require reliable internet connection for optimal functionality

11. Advance Data Systems Corporation - Best for a feature-rich RIS software

Advance Data Systems Corporation website
Advance Data Systems Corporation's website homepage

Advance Data Systems Corporation is a provider of a comprehensive range of medical software solutions, including a robust Radiology Information System (RIS). Its RIS offering stands out due to its extensive feature set, making it an ideal option for users seeking feature-rich RIS software.

Why I Picked Advance Data Systems Corporation:

I picked Advance Data Systems Corporation for its well-rounded RIS offering. The sheer range of features it incorporates, including scheduling, billing, and reporting tools, makes it distinct in the marketplace. In my judgment, if you are seeking comprehensive, feature-rich RIS software, Advance Data Systems Corporation is a standout choice.

What do you get for free?

Advance Data Systems Corporation does not seem to offer a free version or trial of its software on its website. For precise details about trials or demonstrations, I suggest reaching out to the company directly.

Standout features & integrations:

Advance Data Systems Corporation provides comprehensive features such as patient scheduling, billing, reporting, and EHR integration. Furthermore, it integrates seamlessly with various EHR systems and healthcare IT solutions, which can help improve overall workflow efficiency.


The pricing for Advance Data Systems Corporation's RIS software is not publicly disclosed. For accurate pricing information, it's recommended to contact the company directly.


  • Offers a comprehensive range of features, including patient scheduling, billing, and reporting
  • Integrates with various EHR systems and other healthcare IT solutions
  • Well-rounded software designed specifically for radiology workflows


  • No free version or trial appears to be available
  • Pricing is not publicly disclosed, requiring potential users to contact the company directly
  • Some users might find the extensive feature set overwhelming at first

12. Philips RIS - Best for combining informatics and clinical practices

Philips RIS patient data record view
Philips RIS patient data records.

Philips RIS is an advanced Radiology Information System that aims to enhance patient care and workflow efficiency. It stands out for its unique approach to blending radiology informatics with clinical practices, making it ideal for healthcare facilities aiming to integrate these areas.

Why I Picked Philips RIS:

I chose Philips RIS because of the way it fuses radiology informatics and clinical practices. This integration makes it an exceptional tool in the field, offering a solution that can truly streamline workflows and improve patient care. Philips RIS's emphasis on this fusion makes it an ideal choice for those seeking to bridge the gap between informatics and clinical practices.

What do you get for free?

Philips RIS provides no information about a free version or trial period for their Radiology Information System. For precise information, I recommend contacting Philips directly.

Standout features & integrations:

Philips RIS comes with features such as patient scheduling, tracking, reporting, and integrating clinical data. It also integrates effectively with PACS and EHR systems, enabling healthcare facilities to create a unified workflow that combines informatics and clinical practices.


The pricing for Philips RIS is not listed publicly. For an accurate pricing model, please contact Philips directly.


  • Unique integration of radiology informatics and clinical practices
  • Comprehensive feature set including patient scheduling, tracking, and reporting
  • Effective integration with PACS and EHR systems


  • No information about a free version or trial period
  • Pricing information is not publicly disclosed
  • The extent of its features may require a learning curve for some users

Other Radiology Information Systems

Below is a list of additional radiology information systems that I shortlisted but did not make it to the top 12. Definitely worth checking them out.

  1. Athena Health - Good for comprehensive cloud-based medical record management
  2. Tempo Healthcare - Good for high-quality diagnostic reporting in radiology
  3. Image Information Systems - Good for offering a complete range of RIS/PACS solutions
  4. Soliton IT - Good for seamless integration with existing hospital systems
  5. Biopama RIS - Good for conservation data management in radiology
  6. Radiant RIS - Good for streamlining radiology department workflows

Selection Criteria For Radiology Information Systems

In my years of experience in the radiology field, I've personally tried and researched an array of Radiology Information Systems (RIS). I've evaluated dozens of RIS tools, but in this case, I was really looking for tools that offer advanced workflow automation, user-friendly interfaces, and excellent integration capabilities, which I'll go into more detail about below.

Core Functionality

  • Scheduling and Registration: Tools should enable the seamless scheduling of patients for radiology procedures and easy patient registration.
  • Reporting: A good RIS should allow radiologists to create, store, and easily access diagnostic reports.
  • Image Tracking: A necessary functionality is the ability to track radiology images throughout the radiology department or facility.
  • Billing: An RIS should also provide a comprehensive billing system for procedures performed.

Key Features

  • Integration with PACS: The RIS should be capable of integrating with the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) for seamless data exchange.
  • Compliance: It should comply with healthcare regulations and standards like HIPAA and DICOM.
  • Data Analytics: Advanced RIS often offers data analytics capabilities that can provide valuable insights for healthcare providers.
  • Mobile Access: Given the on-the-go nature of healthcare work, mobile access to the RIS can be a significant advantage.


  • User-Friendly Interface: The tool should have an intuitive interface, ensuring easy navigation for users of all technological capabilities. For a RIS, this might include easily accessible patient records and clear labeling of scheduling, reporting, and billing features.
  • Training and Support: Given the complexity and importance of these tools, robust training resources, and responsive customer support are critical for user onboarding and ongoing use.
  • Customization: An RIS should be customizable to fit the specific needs and workflows of each radiology department or facility. This includes personalized report templates and user-defined fields.
  • Fast and Reliable: Due to the urgent nature of healthcare, a RIS needs to perform tasks quickly and reliably, ensuring there's no lag or downtime that could impact patient care

People Also Ask (FAQs)

What are the benefits of using a Radiology Information System (RIS)?

Utilizing a RIS offers numerous advantages, including improved workflow efficiency, enhanced patient scheduling, streamlined reporting processes, robust billing functionality, and easier compliance with healthcare regulations. Additionally, these systems often offer seamless integration with other healthcare IT systems, data analytics capabilities, and mobile access for added convenience.

How much do these Radiology Information Systems cost?

The pricing for Radiology Information Systems varies widely depending on the features, scalability, and size of the healthcare institution it is servicing. It can range from a few hundred dollars per month to several thousand.

What are the pricing models for Radiology Information Systems?

Pricing models for RIS are typically subscription-based, with costs incurred monthly or annually. Often, the price is determined by the number of users or the volume of usage. Some providers offer tiered plans with varying levels of features and support.

What is the typical range of pricing for these systems?

A typical range for a mid-size hospital or radiology department could be around $500 to $1000 per month. However, prices can exceed this range for larger institutions or for systems offering advanced features and capabilities.

Which are the cheapest and most expensive software options?

While exact prices can be hard to pinpoint due to varying pricing models and custom quotations, on the lower end, software like Soliton IT may be less costly. On the higher end, comprehensive solutions from large-scale providers like Philips or AthenaHealth are likely to be more expensive.

Are there any free options for Radiology Information Systems?

Free options for Radiology Information Systems are rare, primarily due to the complexity and specialized nature of the software. However, some providers may offer a limited free trial or demo for you to test the system and its features. Always inquire with the specific vendor for any available trial options.

Other Healthcare Software Reviews


In conclusion, finding the best Radiology Information System (RIS) primarily hinges on understanding the specific needs of your healthcare institution or healthcare organization. Assessing the core functionality, key features, and usability of the RIS is critical to making the right choice.

Key Takeaways

  • Identify your needs: Before you embark on selecting a RIS, first clarify what specific features and functionality your institution requires. Whether it's about integrating with existing systems, the ability to handle a high volume of patients, or sophisticated reporting capabilities, understanding your needs will help narrow down your options.
  • Investigate Usability: A system can have all the features in the world, but if it's not user-friendly, it can create more problems than it solves. When choosing a RIS, focus on the user experience, ease of onboarding, intuitive interface, and efficient customer support.
  • Consider Pricing Models: Costs can vary widely based on the number of users, feature set, and level of support provided. Understand the pricing models offered by each vendor, factor in any additional fees, and remember to consider the potential return on investment the system can bring in terms of improved efficiency and patient care.

What Do You Think?

Certainly, the world of Radiology Information Systems is expansive, and I may have overlooked some standout tools or metrics. Your experience and insights are greatly appreciated.

If a tool has been especially useful in your practice and is not on my list, I encourage you to share. Any related data is also welcome. Your input could guide other healthcare professionals in finding the ideal RIS solution for their needs.

John Payne
By John Payne

John Payne is the co-founder and company director of Symphony Health. With over 20 years of management experience John is working alongside his wife, Dr. Kate Payne to build a multi-site Medical Practice where staff work collaboratively for the good of their patients. John is passionate about improving access to quality Healthcare in North Vancouver and sharing best practice with other people managing medical practices.